A Systematic Review on Clinical Indicators, Their Types and Codification Processes

  • Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
  • Mehdi Farhoudi
  • Sakineh Hajebrahimi
  • Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad
  • Zahra Sohrabnavi
  • Saber Azami-Aghdash Tabriz Health Services Management Research Center, Faculty of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Purpose: Valid and reliable clinical indicators are regarded as the most important necessities to promote and measure clinical services. Therefore, the present study aims at systematic summarizing and reviewing clinical indicators, their types and codification processes.

Methods: This systematic review study was conducted using keywords of “indicator” and “clinical” and their Persian equivalent from Medline, Google scholar, SID, PubMed, and Science Direct databases, Yahoo and Google motor searches, authentic journals, the related websites, and other references at the time interval of 1975-2012. After subject evaluation, abstract and full texts of the studies were found and the studies with weak relation with objectives of the study were eliminated. The selected studies were carefully considered and their results were extracted using Extraction Table.

Results: In this study, 2094 articles were found and 30 articles were finally studied. Exact evaluation of the articles resulted in 512 clinical indicators approximately covering all clinical fields. The selected indicators were classified in 6 categories, 19 types, and 10 methods and their selection and codification were divided into three general stages of data collection, indicators selection, and being assured of the indicators reliability.

Conclusion: To evaluate clinical governance performance in hospitals with clinical efficiency as one of its main elements, valid clinical indicators are required to measure and promote clinical services’ quality. Summarizing valid indicators of studies conducted all over the world, the present study can be used to codify appropriate clinical indicators.



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How to Cite
Sadeghi-Bazargani, H., Farhoudi, M., Hajebrahimi, S., Naghavi-Behzad, M., Sohrabnavi, Z., & Azami-Aghdash, S. (2014). A Systematic Review on Clinical Indicators, Their Types and Codification Processes. Journal of Clinical Research & Governance, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.13183/jcrg.v4i1.101
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