Journal of Clinical Research & Governance http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG <!-- start feedwind code --><script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ document.write('<script type="text/javascript" src="' + ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://' : 'http://') + 'feed.mikle.com/js/rssmikle.js"><' + '/script>'); // ]]></script><script type="text/javascript">// <![CDATA[ (function() {var params = {rssmikle_url: "http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/gateway/plugin/WebFeedGatewayPlugin/rss2",rssmikle_frame_width: "600",rssmikle_frame_height: "100",rssmikle_target: "_blank",rssmikle_font: "Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif",rssmikle_font_size: "10",rssmikle_border: "off",responsive: "on",rssmikle_css_url: "",text_align: "left",text_align2: "left",corner: "on",scrollbar: "on",autoscroll: "on_mc",scrolldirection: "up",scrollstep: "3",mcspeed: "30",sort: "New",rssmikle_title: "on",rssmikle_title_sentence: "Recent articles",rssmikle_title_link: "http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/gateway/plugin/WebFeedGatewayPlugin/rss2",rssmikle_title_bgcolor: "#0066FF",rssmikle_title_color: "#FFFFFF",rssmikle_title_bgimage: "",rssmikle_item_bgcolor: "#FFFFFF",rssmikle_item_bgimage: "",rssmikle_item_title_length: "85",rssmikle_item_title_color: "#0066FF",rssmikle_item_border_bottom: "on",rssmikle_item_description: "on",item_link: "off",rssmikle_item_description_length: "150",rssmikle_item_description_color: "#666666",rssmikle_item_date: "gl1",rssmikle_timezone: "Etc/GMT",datetime_format: "%b %e, %Y %l:%M:%S %p",item_description_style: "text",item_thumbnail: "full",article_num: "15",rssmikle_item_podcast: "off",keyword_inc: "",keyword_exc: ""};feedwind_show_widget_iframe(params);})(); // ]]></script><div style="font-size: 10px; text-align: center;"><a style="color: #cccccc;" href="http://feed.mikle.com/" target="_blank">RSS Feed Widget</a><!--Please display the above link in your web page according to Terms of Service.--></div><!-- end feedwind code --> en-US Journal of Clinical Research & Governance <span>The authors agree to convey  the </span>copyright of their article to Swedish Science Pioneers as the publisher. Effect of Aripiprazole on Smoking Rate in Male Bipolar Mood Disorders I http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/207 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Significant impairment in functioning of patients with mental disorders is created. Bipolar disorder is a common and debilitating mental illness that ranks the fifth for the burden of disease among all patients. It is hard to treat the disorder and stabilize patient’s mood for a long-term due to lack of patient compliance, multiple recurrences and severity of the disease. The most common, costly and the deadliest addiction would belong to nicotine which is often neglected and involved people with bipolar disorder. Smoking and consequently mortality rate in psychiatric patients is higher than the population.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The interventional research studied all patients with Bipolar Disorder type I is. Forty randomly selected patients were divided into two groups: Aripiprazole and placebo. The samples were examined two times; at the baseline and after 6 weeks, with Young Mania Rating Scale, and Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence. Data were analyzed using the software package SPSS 18 and p-value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Aripiprazole Group showed statistically significant difference in reduction in nicotine use between phases of before and after treatment, but it was not true in the placebo group. The intervention group decreased smoking significantly after 6 weeks of treatment, in contrast to the placebo group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Aripiprazole reduces smoking in patients with Bipolar Disorder type I.</p> Sepideh Herizchi Mohammad Taher Tayyebzadeghan Asghar Arfaei Mostafa Farahbakhsh Salman Safikhanlou Leyla Banifatemeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-22 2019-01-22 7 1 10.13183/jcrg.v7i2.207 Content-Analysis of text and video news of traffic accidents in Iran during the years 2001-2017 http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/206 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The mass media is an effective tool for improving traffic culture by education. The aim of this study was to analyses the content of the text and video news on traffic accidents of Iran during the years 2001 to 2017.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This qualitative study with Content-Analysis approach was conducted in 2018. The needed data was gathered by searching the keywords of “road traffic injuries, traffic accident, road traffic accident, accident, incident, and crash” in web archives of news agencies and news broadcasting channels. The data entered into an extraction table designed by the study team. To analyze the data, the Content-Analysis method was applied. The Microsoft Excel software was used to draw the figures.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Crossing the lane to left (wrong-way driving), distracted driving, speed limit violation, reckless driving, drowsiness and fatigue were the main causes of collisions in the news. Majority (34.5%) of the accidents occurred in early hours of day (0 to 6 mornings). Fall was the season with highest incidence of the crashes (38.15%). In the text news the light vehicle such as cars were the most involved in the crashes (54.13%). In the video news also the light vehicles were involved in majority of the crashes (90.4%). Only in 10% of the text news and 20% of the video news educational and preventive materials were included.</p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings of this study showed that the prevention and education did not get sufficient attention in the published news on traffic accidents. It is suggested that when pressing the news on traffic accidents, besides the news of the accident, educational and preventive materials be communicated with people. Saber Azami-Aghdash Mohammad Amin Najafzadeh Mahdiyeh Heydari Ramin Rezapour Javad Sajjadi Khasraghi naser derakhshani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 7 1 10.13183/jcrg.v6i2.206 Time Indicators in The Pre-Hospital Performance in Iran and Causes of a Delay in Reaching the Scene of Disaster: A mini systematic review http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/203 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p><p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Awareness of status of pre-hospital time indicators and possible factors contributing to the delay taken is critical in making decisions. Therefore, this study aimed at conducting a mini review of time indicators in pre-hospital performance in Iran and investigating their possible cause of delays. <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study data were collected using keywords such as pre-hospital, ED 115, response time, arrival time, time interval, site of the accident in Iran and its English equivalents from Google scholar, PubMed, MagIran, SID databases and Google search engine, manual searching of journals, gray literature and selected references. To search for articles, time limit has not been considered.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 346 original articles found, 11 articles were included in the study.  The average arrival times of the pre-hospital emergency services to the scene for urban and roads are 8.5±1.2 and  11.9±1.7 minutes, respectively. Dispatching ambulances from non-main areas due to lack of ambulances busy traffic routes, non-standard distribution of emergency sites, bad weather and failure to comply with the priority passing of ambulance by people were the main reasons of the pre-hospital delays.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of studies in Iran represent satisfactory performance in the pre-hospital of emergency. Planning for resolving the problem of ambulance dispatching from non-main areas due to lack of ambulances and traffic can be the top priority of the relevant authorities.</p> Saber Azami-Aghdash Mir Hossein Aghaei Masoud Shirmohammadi naser derakhshani mahdiyeh heydari khalil kalavani Ghader Sadeghi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 7 1 10.13183/jcrg.v6i1.203 Oral health change in Iran: Part IV Jumping to dental caries free schools http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/201 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. Oral health promotion of elementary school students is a joint program of the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education which has been adopted by them as an agreement for making a change in oral health in Iran. Within this program, some training, prevention, medical and research actions have been taken and are undergoing for the elementary school students. This paper presents the results of the first three years of the implementation of this program.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>. First, an agreement was signed between the two ministries for the promotion of oral and dental health among elementary school students. Then, some executive strategies were selected within this agreement including the promotion of human resource providing prevention services, the improvement of infrastructure by increasing the number mobile dental clinic vehicles and oral health posts at schools with mobile units, the improvement of standards for health centers by providing surgical restoration services and the removal of irreparable teeth, and the insurance coverage of rural areas and townships with less than 20,000 population. The objectives of the program were evaluated at data, process and output levels and the initial results were assessed in terms of the enhancement of students’ awareness and prevention service coverage.</p><p><span><strong>Results</strong>:</span> Prevention service coverage reached over 80 percent in the first three years of the program implementation, and the infrastructure has been grown greatly. The short-term effects of the program are evident.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>. Students oral health program has had great achievements in the improvement of prevention services at school level.</p> Hamid Sammadzadeh Nadereh Moosavi Fatemi Mohammad Hossein Karimi Masoud Shabani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 7 1 10.13183/jcrg.v6i1.201 Economic Burden of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran: A Mini-systematic Review http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/200 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Due to the high economic burden of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran and the ambiguities in this field,  the aim of this study was to mini systematic review about the economic burden of RTIs in Iran.</p><p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Required data in this mini systematic review study were collected through searching the following key words: “road traffic injuries”, “road traffic accidents”, “road traffic crashes”, “road traffic collision”,” economic*”, cost and Iran. The following databases were used: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information (SID) databases and IranMedex. Some of the relevant journals and web site searched manually. Reference lists check of the selected articles also was conducted. In final stage of literature review we also conducted search of gray literature and experts contact.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the 11 studies examined show that the Human Capital (HC) approach is used more than other cases among different approaches to calculating the cost of RTIs. Using the willingness to pay (WTP) approach, the total cost of RTIsin Iran in 2013 was reported to be 6.64% of the GNP. Using the HC approach, the share of RTIs costs in the whole of Iran has been reported to be 1.4% and 2.1% of GNP, respectively. Health care costs of RTIs have been more explored, compared to other types of RTIs costs. The costs of vehicles were higher than other types of expenses.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Economic burden of RTIs in Iran are high. Hence, more planning and attention to preventing RTIs, and increasing the safety of roads and vehicles are essential.</p> Saber Azami-Aghdash Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazarghani Mahdiyeh Heydari Ramin Rezapour Naser Derakhshani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-21 2018-01-21 7 1 10.13183/jcrg.v5i2.200