Journal of Clinical Research & Governance http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG <!-- start feedwind code --> <div style="font-size: 10px; text-align: center;"><a style="color: #cccccc;" href="http://feed.mikle.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RSS Feed Widget</a><!--Please display the above link in your web page according to Terms of Service.--></div> <!-- end feedwind code --> en-US Journal of Clinical Research & Governance <span>The authors agree to convey  the </span>copyright of their article to Swedish Science Pioneers as the publisher. Developing and Validating a Framework for Providing Spiritual Health Services to Medical Universities’ Students http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/212 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a framework for providing spiritual health services in Iran’s universities of medical sciences.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study is a qualitative study with Grounded Theory approach which was conducted in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Using purposive sampling method, 14 experts were selected and data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed by content analysis method.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Spiritual health service provision framework for medical university students developed in 11 themes including: service package, service package developer, service providing responsibility, service providers, skills required for provision services, service delivery location, service delivery method, needed resources and infrastructure, the authority to provide required resources, the reimbursement method for service providers, and services evaluation method. These 11 themes include 53 subthemes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In developing this framework, it was attempted to take into account all aspects and dimensions of a comprehensive framework. Therefore, it can serve as a practical guide for planning and decision making for authorities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Developing, Framework, Spiritual Health, Students, Medical Sciences Universities</p> Yousof Khairy Hojatolah Gharaee Ramin Rezapour Mehdi Nouri Javad Nemati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 8 2 10.13183/jcrg.v8i2.212 Lake Urmia Drying and People’s Health: Attitudes of Locals and Health Service Providers around the Lake http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/213 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Lake Urmia Drying (LUD) is one of the most serious recent environmental challenges and has bearded numerous impacts on local people’s health and more even on neighboring countries. The aim of the present study is to bring to the surface the attitudes of locals and health service providers who live around Lake Urmia about its drying and consequence effects on people’s health.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this qualitative study with the grounded theory approach, the participants included 30 locals, 30 social workers, and 10 family doctors who were recruited by target-based sampling method from the villages of three east-costs cities of Lake Urmia.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data were collected by holding 7 group discussion sessions and were analyzed using a content-analysis methodology. main themes and 15 sub-themes were extracted including indirect affecting factors on health (reduced revenues, changed agricultural patterns, migration, and unemployment) disease prevalence (respiratory diseases, cancers, anemia, psychological disorders, and others) confusing factors (screening patients and active respiratory recording, people’s oversensitivity, and industrial and producing centers) and need for more evidence (need for strong evidence, need for data recording system, and need for providing scientific content).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on participants’ attitudes LUD is indirectly effective on people’s health by reducing revenue, and changing agricultural patterns. About direct effects, still, it cannot be acclaimed that increase in the prevalence of diseases is related to LUD while many confusing factors are influential and further studies are needed.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Environmental challenges; Urmia Lake; Drying; Health; Disease prevalence</p> Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani Mostafa Farahbakhsh Mortaza Saadatkhah Mohsen Nouri Dariush Jafarzadeh Saber Azami-Aghdash ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 8 2 10.13183/jcrg.v8i2.213 Studies Reporting Quality as a Major Challenges in Conducting Meta-Analysis: An experience in Effectiveness of fissure sealant and fluoride varnish in preventing dental caries http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/215 <p><strong>Dear Editor,</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Systematic reviews aim to provide comprehensive and structured synthesis of existing knowledge in specific subjects; therefore its importance is well recognized. Because the strategy of performing the literature search, study selection, and synthesis of the results to report the findings follow defined principles. <sup>[1, 2]</sup> However, suboptimal or sometimes arbitrary reporting structure and disregarding the existent reporting guidelines (such as CONSORT&nbsp;for randomized trials) is one of the main challenges regarding the performing this kind of studies. <sup>[3-5]</sup></p> <p>According to experiences gained from&nbsp;some systematic review studies in the field of dental&nbsp;caries prevention that were not subject to a meta-analysis,<sup>[6-8]</sup> there were some weaknesses in conducting clinical studies making them inappropriate for inclusion in a meta-analysis design (e.g. not providing complete reports regarding the baseline status of dental health, not comprehensively evaluating the related indicators, etc.).&nbsp;</p> <p>Most of the studies on the effectiveness of Fissure sealants and Fluoride therapies are performed with the aim to examine prevention rate and decay levels, respectively. And some of the studies examine the effect of both interventions, reporting dental caries indicators&nbsp;(DMFT, DMFS, dmft and dmfs). Some important findings of these studies indicate lack of assigning control and intervention groups in examining periodic outcomes of interventions in terms of caries indicators<sup>[9, 10]</sup> , not reporting overall caries indicators for all of the study participants, [11] &nbsp;and also not reporting sealant retention in different forms (total, partial, or complete loss). <sup>[12-15]</sup></p> <p>In order to make a final decision regarding the outcomes of each aforementioned intervention<sup>[16]</sup>, we need to combine and synthesize results of similar indicators from several studies applying systematic review and meta-analysis designs. Despite the importance of optimal reporting of scientific findings, the reporting of results in some of the studies was incomplete and had weaknesses and challenges including not reporting all of defined indicators, not reporting the baseline status of the indicators, and lack of reporting the indicators within different time periods that have limited their inclusion in secondary studies. To solve this problem, complete and accurate use of the results reporting framework and taking account of follow-up periods, as well as reporting comprehensive indicators of dental caries and types of used materials is recommended. These items, which are developed using relevant experts’ points of view, are provided in Tables 1 and 2 (Refer to PDF file). It’s expected that by applying this proposed framework, in addition to enhancing the quality of study results, performing meta-analysis studies that is an absolute necessity will be possible.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Keywords:</strong> fissure sealant, fluoride varnish, caries, dental.</p> Dariush Jafarzadeh Ramin Rezapour Teimour Abbasi Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi Mahmood Yousefi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-10 2019-12-10 8 2 10.13183/jcrg.v8i2.215 Effect of Aripiprazole on Smoking Rate in Male Bipolar Mood Disorders I http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/207 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Significant impairment in functioning of patients with mental disorders is created. Bipolar disorder is a common and debilitating mental illness that ranks the fifth for the burden of disease among all patients. It is hard to treat the disorder and stabilize patient’s mood for a long-term due to lack of patient compliance, multiple recurrences and severity of the disease. The most common, costly and the deadliest addiction would belong to nicotine which is often neglected and involved people with bipolar disorder. Smoking and consequently mortality rate in psychiatric patients is higher than the population.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The interventional research studied all patients with Bipolar Disorder type I is. Forty randomly selected patients were divided into two groups: Aripiprazole and placebo. The samples were examined two times; at the baseline and after 6 weeks, with Young Mania Rating Scale, and Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence. Data were analyzed using the software package SPSS 18 and p-value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Aripiprazole Group showed statistically significant difference in reduction in nicotine use between phases of before and after treatment, but it was not true in the placebo group. The intervention group decreased smoking significantly after 6 weeks of treatment, in contrast to the placebo group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Aripiprazole reduces smoking in patients with Bipolar Disorder type I.</p> Sepideh Herizchi Mohammad Taher Tayyebzadeghan Asghar Arfaei Mostafa Farahbakhsh Salman Safikhanlou Leyla Banifatemeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-22 2019-01-22 8 2 10.13183/jcrg.v7i2.207 Content-Analysis of text and video news of traffic accidents in Iran during the years 2001-2017 http://index.sciencepub.se/ojs/index.php/JCRG/article/view/206 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The mass media is an effective tool for improving traffic culture by education. The aim of this study was to analyses the content of the text and video news on traffic accidents of Iran during the years 2001 to 2017.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This qualitative study with Content-Analysis approach was conducted in 2018. The needed data was gathered by searching the keywords of “road traffic injuries, traffic accident, road traffic accident, accident, incident, and crash” in web archives of news agencies and news broadcasting channels. The data entered into an extraction table designed by the study team. To analyze the data, the Content-Analysis method was applied. The Microsoft Excel software was used to draw the figures.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Crossing the lane to left (wrong-way driving), distracted driving, speed limit violation, reckless driving, drowsiness and fatigue were the main causes of collisions in the news. Majority (34.5%) of the accidents occurred in early hours of day (0 to 6 mornings). Fall was the season with highest incidence of the crashes (38.15%). In the text news the light vehicle such as cars were the most involved in the crashes (54.13%). In the video news also the light vehicles were involved in majority of the crashes (90.4%). Only in 10% of the text news and 20% of the video news educational and preventive materials were included.</p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings of this study showed that the prevention and education did not get sufficient attention in the published news on traffic accidents. It is suggested that when pressing the news on traffic accidents, besides the news of the accident, educational and preventive materials be communicated with people. Saber Azami-Aghdash Mohammad Amin Najafzadeh Mahdiyeh Heydari Ramin Rezapour Javad Sajjadi Khasraghi naser derakhshani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 8 2 10.13183/jcrg.v6i2.206